I believe the correct answer would be yes. As in yes to both options…8-/
This review will summarize current information on bacterial skin flora including Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Propioni-bacterium, Streptococcus and Pseudomonas. Specifically, the review will discuss our current understanding of the cutaneous microbiota as well as shifting paradigms in the interpretation of the roles microbes play in skin health and disease.
Through an analysis of the limited current literature, we highlight a new hypothesis that suggests skin microbes directly benefit the host and only rarely exhibit pathogenicity. In this model, the delicate balance of the skin barrier and innate immunity combine to maintain healthy skin, and disturbance of this balance can predispose the host to a number of cutaneous infectious and inflammatory conditions.
Unlike the intestine, the role of microbes on the skin surface has not been well studied. An incomplete understanding of the fundamental biology of cutaneous microflora is the result of the limited research efforts to date…In light of symbiotic relationships of microbial mutualism and commensalism demonstrated as critical to human health in studies of gut microbiota, a need exists to expand this research in skin.