29% Manganese – The human body contains about 12 mg of manganese, mostly in the bones. The soft tissue remainder is concentrated in the liver and kidneys. In the human brain, the manganese is bound to manganese metalloproteins, most notably glutamine synthetase in astrocytes.
5% Iron – Fact Sheet – Iron is an essential component of hemoglobin, an erythrocyte protein that transfers oxygen from the lungs to the tissues.
Although iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia, deficiencies of other micronutrients (such as folate and vitamin B12) and other factors (such as chronic infection and inflammation) can cause different forms of anemia or contribute to their severity.
The functional deficits associated with anemia include gastrointestinal disturbances and impaired cognitive function, immune function, exercise or work performance, and body temperature regulation.
In infants and children, IDA can result in psycho-motor and cognitive abnormalities that, without treatment, can lead to learning difficulties.
Some evidence indicates that the effects of deficiencies early in life persist through adulthood.
Because iron deficiency is often accompanied by deficiencies of other nutrients, the signs and symptoms of iron deficiency can be difficult to isolate.
1.2% Copper – The human body requires copper for normal growth and health. Copper, along with iron, is a critical component in the formation of red blood cells. Copper also influences the functioning of the heart and arteries, helps prevent bone defects such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, and promotes healthy connective tissues (hair, skin, nails, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels).
1.37% Nickel – Studies suggest that nickel may play a role in the body’s use of folic acid and vitamin B12, which are both necessary to help maintain desirable levels of homocysteine, a toxic amino acid that is associated with an increased risk of heart disease and stroke. Other research has shown that nickel concentration influences the production of certain hormones, including adrenaline and noradrenaline, as well as prolactin (which stimulates production of breast milk), and aldosterone (which helps maintain blood pressure by regulating salt and water balance). Nickel deficiencies have also been associated with poor iron absorption and altered metabolism of calcium.
1.2% Cobalt – An essential metal, needed for the health of ruminant animals, such as cows and sheep. It is also needed by various environmental bacteria and other microscopic forms of life that play an important role in the biodiversity of our world.
Bacteria in the stomachs of ruminant animals transform cobalt into cobalamin – the form of cobalt needed by animals and humans. Cobalamin is more commonly known as Vitamin B12.
Cobalamin is needed for blood cell formation, and consequently one of the main deficiency effects is anaemia with a decrease in red blood cells. Cobalamin is also essential for healthy brain and nervous system function, as well as in DNA synthesis, fatty acid synthesis and energy metabolism.
15% Silicon Dioxide – Silicon dioxide is found naturally in many plants, such as:
- leafy green vegetables
- bell peppers
- brown rice
Diseases of Iron Metabolism – Utah