WebMD: Iodine is a chemical element. The body needs iodine but cannot make it. The needed iodine must come from the diet. As a rule, there is very little iodine in food, unless it has been added during processing, which is now the case with salt. Most of the world’s iodine is found in the ocean, where it is concentrated by sea life, especially seaweed.
Linus Pauling Institute-OSU – Iodine ~ Iodine is a key component of thyroid hormones, which are required throughout life for normal growth, neurological development, and metabolism.
Excerpt from Iodine and Cancer – A summary of the evidence to date.
Iodine’s role in maintaining the health of breast tissue is suggested by its therapeutic effects on benign breast conditions. In a publication reviewing three clinical trials of varied designs, molecular iodine (I2) reduced fibrocystic signs/symptoms while iodide (I-) was less effective and affected thyroidal function more readily. In one of the trials included in that review, the dose of molecular iodine was 0.07 mg to 0.09 mg/kg body weight per day. Converting this to something more clinically useful, this is approximately 3.2 mg to 4.0 mg/100 lb body weight per day of molecular iodine (I2).
USANA – What is Iodine? ~ Iodine, a halogen element, has importance in human health as a component of the hormone thyroxine (produced by the human thyroid gland). Thyroxine is an important part of general metabolism regulation and normal fetal development.
Iodine deficiency can lead to an enlargement of the thyroid gland (e.g. goiter) and other related disorders. Severe maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy can lead to fetal cretinism, a form of mental retardation. Less severe deficiencies during pregnancy can lead to lesser degrees of neurological damage, which generally manifest as poor cognitive performance and hearing impairment. These conditions are rare in the U.S. as iodine is easily accessible, especially from iodized salt.
Food sources of iodine include milk, bread, fish, various fruits and vegetables, and legumes.
Although cases of intolerance to iodine intakes of 2,000 mcg have been reported, humans can generally tolerate levels up to 10,000 mcg per day.
Insufficient iodine intake impairs the production of thyroid hormones, leading to a condition called hypothyroidism. Iodine deficiency results in a range of adverse health disorders with varying degrees of severity, from thyroid gland enlargement (goiter) to severe physical and mental retardation known as cretinism.
Iodine deficiency-induced hypothyroidism has adverse effects in all stages of development but is most damaging to the developing brain. Maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy can result in maternal and fetal hypothyroidism, as well as miscarriage, preterm birth, and neurological impairments in offspring.
Iodine: The Complete Guide to Iodine Health Benefits
What Is Iodine?
~ Dr. Edward Group ~
A chemical element with the atomic number 53 and symbol I, iodine occurs as a purple-black solid or a purple vapor when a gas. It has 37 known isotopes, and all are radioactive except I-127, the form found in food and supplements. Iodine is a trace element because of its rarity. The human body requires iodine but does not produce it; hence it is also called an essential nutrient. This means people must eat foods high in iodine or take supplements to avoid iodine deficiency. The body uses iodine to create thyroid hormones, which affect brain development and function, metabolism, and other body processes.
- Kapil U. “Health Consequences of Iodine Deficiency.” Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2007;7(3),267-272.
- Błażewicz A, et al. “Iodine in autism spectrum disorders.” J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2016;34:32-7.
- Vermiglio F, et al. “Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders in the Offspring of Mothers Exposed to Mild-Moderate Iodine Deficiency: A Possible Novel Iodine Deficiency Disorder in Developed Countries.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(12),6054-60.
- Visser J et al. “Tight Junctions, Intestinal Permeability, and Autoimmunity Celiac Disease and Type 1 Diabetes Paradigms.” Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1165,195-205.
- Mu Q, et al. “Leaky Gut As a Danger Signal for Autoimmune Diseases.” Front Immunol. 2017;8,598.
- Rao M, Gershon MD. “The bowel and beyond: the enteric nervous system in neurological disorders.” Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;13,517–528.
- Hermann D, et al. “Testing the association between thyroid dysfunction and psychiatric diagnostic group in an iodine-deficient area.” J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2004;29(6),444-449.
- Bunevičius R, Prange A. “Thyroid_disease_and_mental_disorders__cause_and.12.aspxThyroid disease and mental disorders: cause and effect or only comorbidity?” Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2010;23(4),363-8.
- Flynn J. “Povidone-iodine as a topical antiseptic for treating and preventing wound infection: a literature review.” Br J Community Nurs. 2003;8(6 Suppl),S36-42.
- Rappaport J. “Changes in Dietary Iodine Explains Increasing Incidence of Breast Cancer with Distant Involvement in Young Women.” J Cancer. 2017;8(2),174-177.
- Aceves C, et al. “The Extrathyronine Actions of Iodine as Antioxidant, Apoptotic, and Differentiation Factor in Various Tissues.” Thyroid. 2013;23(8),938-946.
- Eastman CJ, Zimmermann MB. “The Iodine Deficiency Disorders.” In, Endotext. De Groot LJ, et al, Editors. 2000.
- “Underactive thyroid: Overview.” Informed Health Online: Current Medical Knowledge. Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. 10 Aug. 2017. Accessed 1 Jun. 2018.
- Kucharska A, et al. “Significance of diet in treated and untreated acne vulgaris.” Postepy Dermatol Alergol. 2016;33(2),81-86.
- Li J-H, et al. “Health Effects from Swimming Training in Chlorinated Pools and the Corresponding Metabolic Stress Pathways.” PLoS One. 2015;10(3),e0119241.
- Peckham S, Awofeso N. “Water Fluoridation: A Critical Review of the Physiological Effects of Ingested Fluoride as a Public Health Intervention.” ScientificWorldJournal. 2014; 2014,293019.
- Harrington RM, et al. “Effects of chlorine dioxide on thyroid function in the African green monkey and the rat.” J Toxicol Environ Health. 1986;19(2),235-42.
- “Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI).” U.S. Food & Drug Administration. 14 Oct 2016. Accessed 1 Jun. 2018.
- “Iodine deficiency may reduce pregnancy chances, NIH study suggests.” National Institutes of Health. 11 Jan. 2018. Accessed 1 Jun. 2018.
- Vidal ZE, et al. “Oxidative stress increased in pregnant women with iodine deficiency.” Biol Trace Elem Res. 2014;157(3),211-7.
- Upadhyay G, et al. “Functional expression of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in human breast cancer tissue.” Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2003;77(2),157-65.
- “Iodine: Fact Sheet for Health Professionals.” U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. Nih.gov. 2011. Accessed 31 May 2018.
- Leung AM, Braverman LE. “Consequences of excess iodine.” Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014;10(3),136-142.
- “Iodine Deficiency.” American Thyroid Association. Accessed 31 May 2018.
- Qian M, et al. “The effects of iodine on intelligence in children: a meta-analysis of studies conducted in China.” Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2005;14(1),32-42.
- Santiago-Fernandez P, et al. “Intelligence Quotient and Iodine Intake: A Cross-Sectional Study in Children.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(8),3851-7.
- “Study Finds New Iodine Mouthwash May Impact LDL Cholesterol.” [press release]. Business Week. 22 Apr. 2013.
- Calissendorff J, Falhammar H. “Lugol’s solution and other iodide preparations: perspectives and research directions in Graves’ disease.” Endocrine. 2017;58(3),467-473.
Athletes lose a lot of precious iodine through your sweat. Supplementation is clearly in order. Luckily, iodine, in the form of supplements, is pretty inexpensive. However, dosages per pill vary widely between manufacturers. Some companies supply the mineral in tiny, RDA-sized dosages of 150 micrograms, whereas others supply it in milligram-sized capsules. (The largest I found was 12.5 mg. per capsule.)
Unfortunately, it’s difficult to say how much you’d need to remedy a deficiency. Simply taking the RDA would be like refilling a bucket with water by adding one drop a day. A more functional approach would be to take between 6 mg. and 12 mg. for a period of weeks or months (up to three). As always, play it smart if you try the supplement approach. If you don’t think you have a deficiency, you might simply want to start keeping a shaker of iodized salt on the table.
IODINE – WebMD
OTHER NAME(S): Atomic number 53, Cadexomer Iodine, Diatomic Iodine, I2, Iode, Iode de Cadexomer, Iode Diatomique, Iode Moléculaire, Iode Mono-atomique, Iode de Povidone, Iode de Sodium, Iodide, Iodized Salt, Iodure, Iodure de Potassium, Iodure de Potassium en Solution Saturée, Iodure de Sodium, KI, Lugol’s Solution, Molecular Iodine, Monoatomic Iodine, Numéro atomique 53, Periodate de Sodium, Potassium Iodide, Povidone Iodine, Saturated Solution Potassium Iodide, Sel Iodé, Sodium Iodide, Sodium Iodine, Sodium Periodate, Solution de Lugol, SSKI, Yodo.