A Topical Gel From Flax Seed Oil Compared With Hand Splint in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial


ABSTRACT: This study compared the therapeutic effect of flax seed oil topical gel and hand splint in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. This study was a randomized clinical trial. Forty-nine patients, 96 hands, with mild to moderate idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome were divided into 2 groups randomly. One group was treated by topical gel and the other group by hand splint. Intensity of symptoms and function before and after intervention was measured via Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. After intervention, the ANCOVA showed a significant difference between the symptom and function scores of the 2 groups. In both cases, recovery was higher in the gel group (P < .001). The topical use of flax seed oil gel is more effective in the improvement of symptoms and function of patients with mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome as compared with hand splint, and it can be introduced as an effective treatment.

Keywords: Persian medicine, carpal tunnel syndrome, flax seed oil

CONCLUSION: The results showed that for patients with the clinical and electro-diagnostic diagnosis of mild to moderate idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome, topical application of flax seed oil gel, twice a day for 3 weeks, was more effective than a hand splint for short-term reduction of symptoms and functional improvement. This method can be introduced as an effective and supportive alternative treatment for patients who are unwilling to use a hand splint. It should be mentioned that further studies are needed for determining the long-term effects of the proposed method.

MY CONCLUSION: Carpal Tunnel: It’s Dermal Origins

Ginger and Cinnamon: Can This Household Remedy Treat Giardiasis? Parasitological and Histopathological Studies

~Content Source


Giardia lamblia is one of the most common protozoal infections in human especially children. Metronidazol (MTZ) is the drug of choice for treatment of giardiasis; its chemical composition possesses major threats and is becoming less sensitive. This study aimed to search for natural extracts alternative to MTZ.


In-vivo effects of dichloromethane extracts of ginger and cinnamon in doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg/day separately were studied on 30 experimentally infected albino rats divided into 6 groups (5 rats each). Plant extracts were started on the 6th day post infection for 7 successive days. The study was evaluated by fecal cyst and intestinal trophozoite counts, histopathology, scanning and transmission electron microscopic examinations of the small intestinal mucosa.


Ginger and cinnamon caused reduction of fecal cyst and trophozoites counts. Histopathology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after exposure to each extract revealed evident improvement of intestinal mucosal damage produced by G. lamblia infection and direct structural injury to the trophozoites. However, these results were more obvious after exposure to cinnamon extracts.


We confirmed the potential therapeutic effects of ginger and cinnamon extracts on G. lambliainfection in albino rats as a promising alternative therapy to the commonly used antigiardial drugs.

Keywords: Giardia, Ginger, Cinnamon, Intestinal-histopathology, Electron microscopy


Oh baby…On its way via AMAZON.



Taurosodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a bile salt and liver supplement naturally produced by our gallbladders that has many health benefits. [1]


TUDCA works either by its interactions with other bile salts or by preventing cells from apoptosis. [1]


Taking bile salts is a long-established way for people to prevent gallstones. [4] TUDCA also helps to dissolve gallstones that may already be forming. [5]


TUDCA may help with diabetes by making the liver and the muscles more sensitive to insulin, allowing them to use glucose more effectively and cause fewer blood sugar drops and spikes. [6]


TUDCA can be used as a therapy for fatty liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis disease, and liver problems caused by cystic fibrosis. [10, 11, 12]

TUDCA also protects the liver from damage caused by sleep apnea. The lack of oxygen can damage organs by causing oxidative damage and increasing stress on cell structures – TUDCA prevents this liver damage and alleviates this stress. [15]


TUDCA reduces some of the stress on the endoplasmic reticulum protecting the kidney against injury from toxins, diseases, and normal wear and tear. [16]


TUDCA renders IBS symptoms less intense and improves the diversity of the bacteria in the bowels and digestive system. [17]


While strokes will always cause some damage, people on TUDCA experience less – nearly half as much in some studies – damage from strokes and better healing over time. [18]


TUDCA’s protective property is mostly for the same reasons that it protects against stroke damage – much of the nerve damage is from apoptosis, which TUDCA prevents from happening. [1, 20, 23]

TUDCA has been shown to slow the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and to reduce their symptoms. [24]


TUDCA is water soluble, not fat soluble like other bile salts. This means that it does not have a detergent-like effect, making it less damaging. [1]


The advantage of TUDCA is that it is better absorbed and stored by the body, meaning that a dose of TUDCA would have a larger benefit than the same dose of UDCA. [28] Therefore, TUDCA is better to take. [29]


To protect the liver, about 10-13mg are used daily.

In insulin sensitivity or fatty liver, this dose can be as high as 1750mg daily.

Higher doses reduce cholesterol but have few other additional benefits or side effects. [14]


The most common, and possibly the only, side effect on record is diarrhea, which is usually not severe enough to be life-threatening. [14]


TUDCA has no reported interactions with statins or other drugs,

TUDCA vs Milk Thistle

Milk thistle can be taken with TUDCA (with caution) or on its own. However, milk thistle has a high risk of allergic reactions, higher risk of side effects, and lower effectiveness, making TUDCA a better option to take on its own. [30, 31]

Biological Activities and Safety of Citrus spp. Essential Oils


Citrus fruits have been a commercially important crop for thousands of years. In addition, Citrusessential oils are valuable in the perfume, food, and beverage industries, and have also enjoyed use as aromatherapy and medicinal agents. This review summarizes the important biological activities and safety considerations of the essential oils of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), neroli (Citrus aurantium), orange petitgrain (Citrus aurantium), mandarin (Citrus reticulata), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi), bergamot (Citrus bergamia), Yuzu (Citrus junos), and kumquat (Citrus japonica).

Keywords: sweet orange, bitter orange, neroli, orange petitgrain, mandarin, lemon, lime, grapefruit, bergamot, yuzu, kumquat

Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-barr, Diet and Leukemia.

‘For 30 years I’ve been obsessed by why children get leukaemia. Now we have an answer’

Newly knighted cancer scientist Mel Greaves explains why a cocktail of microbes could give protection against disease.

Mel Greaves has a simple goal in life. He is trying to create a yoghurt-like drink that would stop children from developing leukaemia.

The idea might seem eccentric; cancers are not usually defeated so simply. However, Professor Greaves is confident and, given his experience in the field, his ideas are being taken seriously by other cancer researchers.

Based at the Institute of Cancer Research in London, Greaves has been studying childhood leukaemia for three decades. On Friday, it was announced that he had received a knighthood in the New Year honours list for the research he has carried out in the field.

“For 30 years I have been obsessed about the reasons why children get leukaemia,” he says. “Now, for the first time, we have an answer to that question – and that means that we can now start thinking about ways to halt it in its tracks. Hence my idea of the drink.”

In the 1950s, common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia – which affects one in 2,000 children in the UK – was lethal. Today 90% of cases are cured, although treatment is toxic, and there can be long-term side effects. In addition, for the past few decades, scientists have noticed that numbers of cases have actually been increasing in the UK and Europe at a steady rate of around 1% a year.

“It is a feature of developed societies but not of developing ones,” Greaves adds. “The disease tracks with affluence.”

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is caused by a sequence of biological events. The initial trigger is a genetic mutation that occurs in about one in 20 children.

“That mutation is caused by some kind of accident in the womb. It is not inherited, but leaves a child at risk of getting leukaemia in later life,” adds Greaves.

For full leukaemia to occur, another biological event must take place and this involves the immune system. “For an immune system to work properly, it needs to be confronted by an infection in the first year of life,” says Greaves. Without that confrontation with an infection, the system is left unprimed and will not work properly.”

And this issue is becoming an increasingly worrying problem. Parents, for laudable reasons, are raising children in homes where antiseptic wipes, antibacterial soaps and disinfected floorwashes are the norm. Dirt is banished for the good of the household.

In addition, there is less breast feeding of infants and a tendency for them to have fewer social contacts with other children. Both trends reduce babies’ contact with germs. This has benefits – but also comes with side effects. Because young children are not being exposed to bugs and infections as they once were, their immune systems are not being properly primed.

“When such a baby is eventually exposed to common infections, his or her unprimed immune system reacts in a grossly abnormal way,” says Greaves. “It over-reacts and triggers chronic inflammation.”

As this inflammation progresses, chemicals called cytokines are released into the blood and these can trigger a second mutation that results in leukaemia in children carrying the first mutation.

“The disease needs two hits to get going,” Greaves explains. “The second comes from the chronic inflammation set off by an unprimed immune system.”

In other words, a susceptible child suffers chronic inflammation that is linked to modern super-clean homes and this inflammation changes his or her susceptibility to leukaemia so that it is transformed into the full-blown condition.

From this perspective, the disease has nothing to with power lines or nuclear fuel reprocessing stations, as has been suggested in the past, but is caused by a double whammy of interacting prenatal and environmental events, as Greaves outlined in the journal Nature Reviews Cancer earlier this year.

Crucially, this new insight offers scientists a chance to intervene and to stop leukaemia from developing in the first place, he adds. “We do not yet know how to prevent the occurrence of the initial prenatal mutation in the womb, but we can now think of ways to block the chronic inflammation that happens later on.”

To do this, Greaves and his team have started working on the bacteria, viruses and other microbes that live in the human gut. These help us digest our food but they also give an indication of the bugs we have been exposed to in life. For example, people in developed countries tend to have far fewer bacterial species in their guts, it has been found – and that is because they have been exposed to fewer species of microbes in the early stages of their lives, a reflection of those “cleaner” lives they are now living.

“We need to find ways of reconstituting their microbiomes – as we term this community of microbes. We also need to find which are the most important species of bacteria for priming a child’s immune system.”

To do this, Greaves is now experimenting on mice to find out which bugs are best at stimulating rodent immune systems. The aim would then be to follow up with trials on humans in two or three years.

“The aim is to find six or maybe 10 species of microbes that are best able to restore a child’s microbiome to a healthy level. This cocktail of microbes would be given, not as a pill, but perhaps as yoghurt-like drink to very young children.

“And it would not just help prevent them getting childhood leukaemia. Cases of conditions such as type 1 diabetes and allergies are also rising in the west and have also been linked to our failure to expose babies to bacteria to prime children’s immune systems. So such a drink would help cut numbers of cases of these conditions as well.

“I think the prospect is incredibly exciting. I think we could use this to reduce the risk not just of leukaemia but a number of other very debilitating conditions.”

Leukaemia: the facts

Blood cells are manufactured in bone marrow. Red blood cells, which carry oxygen round our bodies, white blood cells, which fight infection, and platelets, which stop bleeding, are created when your body needs them. But when a person develops leukaemia, too many white blood cells are released, which stop the normal cells in your bone marrow from growing. As a result, the amount of normal red cells, white cells and platelets in your blood is reduced – and your health suffers.

Of the many types of leukaemia, the most common in young people are acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and acute myeloid leukaemia.

Source: Teenage Cancer Trust

Properties and Therapeutic Application of Bromelain(Pineapple):A Review

~ Content Source


Bromelain belongs to a group of protein digesting enzymes obtained commercially from the fruit or stem of pineapple. Fruit bromelain and stem bromelainare prepared differently and they contain different enzymatic composition. “Bromelain” refers usually to the “stem bromelain.” Bromelain is a mixture of different thiol endopeptidases and other components like phosphatase, glucosidase, peroxidase, cellulase, escharase, and several protease inhibitors. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that bromelain exhibits various fibrinolytic, antiedematous, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Bromelain is considerably absorbable in the body without losing its proteolytic activity and without producing any major side effects. Bromelain accounts for many therapeutic benefits like the treatment of angina pectoris, bronchitis, sinusitis, surgical trauma, and thrombophlebitis, debridement of wounds, and enhanced absorption of drugs, particularly antibiotics. It also relieves osteoarthritis, diarrhea, and various cardiovascular disorders. Bromelain also possesses some anticancerous activities and promotes apoptotic cell death. This paper reviews the important properties and therapeutic applications of bromelain, along with the possible mode of action.

1. Introduction

Pineapple is the common name of Ananas comosus (syns. A. sativus, Ananassa sativa, Bromelia ananas, B. comosa). Pineapple is the leading edible member of the family Bromeliaceae, grown in several tropical and subtropical countries including Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Kenya, India, and China. It has been used as a medicinal plant in several native cultures [] and these medicinal qualities of pineapple are attributed to bromelain (EC, which is a crude extract from pineapple that contains, among other compounds, various closely related proteinases, exhibiting various fibrinolytic, antiedematous, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo. Bromelain has been chemically known since 1875 and is used as a phytomedical compound []. Bromelain concentration is high in pineapple stem, thus necessitating its extraction because, unlike the pineapple fruit which is normally used as food, the stem is a waste byproduct and thus inexpensive []. A wide range of therapeutic benefits have been claimed for bromelain, such as reversible inhibition of platelet aggregation, sinusitis, surgical traumas [], thrombophlebitis, pyelonephriti angina pectoris, bronchitis [], and enhanced absorption of drugs, particularly of antibiotics []. Several studies have been carried out indicating that bromelain has useful phytomedical application. However, these results are yet to be amalgamated and critically compared so as to make out whether bromelain will gain wide acceptance as a phytomedical supplement []. Bromelain acts on fibrinogen giving products that are similar, at least in effect, to those formed by plasmin []. Experiment in mice showed that antacids such as sodium bicarbonate preserve the proteolytic activity of bromelain in the gastrointestinal tract []. Bromelain is considered as a food supplement and is freely available to the general public in health food stores and pharmacies in the USA and Europe []. Existing evidence indicates that bromelain can be a promising candidate for the development of future oral enzyme therapies for oncology patients []. Bromelain can be absorbed in human intestines without degradation and without losing its biological activity [].

2. Biochemical Properties

The crude aqueous extract from stem and fruit of pineapple is known as bromelain. It is a mixture of different thiol endopeptidases and other components like phosphatases, glucosidase, peroxidases, cellulases, glycoproteins, carbohydrates, and several protease inhibitors []. Stem bromelain (EC. is different from fruit bromelain (EC. []. The enzymatic activities of bromelain comprise a wide spectrum with pH range of 5.5 to 8.0 []. Different protein fractions were obtained by mean of various “biochemical techniques as sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis” (SDS-PAGE), isoelectric focusing (IEF), and multicathodal-PAGE []. Nowadays, bromelain is prepared from cooled pineapple juice by centrifugation, ultrafiltration, and lyophilization. The process yields a yellowish powder, the enzyme activity of which is determined with different substrates such as casein (FIP unit), gelatin (gelatin digestion units), or chromogenic tripeptides [].

3. Absorption and Bioavailability

The body can absorb significant amount of bromelain; about 12 gm/day of bromelain can be consumed without any major side effects []. Bromelain is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in a functionally intact form; approximately 40% of labeled bromelain is absorbed from intestine in high molecular form []. In a study carried out by Castell et al. [] bromelain was detected to retain its proteolytic activity in plasma and was also found linked with alpha 2-macroglobulin and alpha1-antichymotrypsin, the two antiproteinases of blood. In a recent study, it was demonstrated that 3.66 mg/mL of bromelain was stable in artificial stomach juice after 4 hrs of reaction and also 2.44 mg/mL of bromelain remained in artificial blood after 4 hrs of reaction [].

4. Medicinal Uses

Clinical studies have shown that bromelain may help in the treatment of several disorders.

4.1. Effects of Bromelain on Cardiovascular and Circulation

Bromelain prevents or minimizes the severity of angina pectoris and transient ischemic attack (TIA). It is useful in the prevention and treatment of thrombophlebitis. It may also break down cholesterol plaques and exerts a potent fibrinolytic activity. A combination of bromelain and other nutrients protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle []. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) include disorders of the blood vessels and heart, coronary heart disease (heart attacks), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), raised blood pressure (hypertension), peripheral artery disease, rheumatic heart disease, heart failure, and congenital heart disease []. Stroke and heart disease are the main cause of death, about 65% of people with diabetes die from stroke or heart disease. Bromelain has been effective in the treatment of CVDs as it is an inhibitor of blood platelet aggregation, thus minimizing the risk of arterial thrombosis and embolism []. King et al. [] reported that administration of medication use to control the symptoms of diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesteromia increased by 121% from 1988–1994 to 2001–2006 (P < 0.05) and was greater for patients with fewer healthy lifestyle habits. Bromelain supplement could reduce any of risk factors that contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. In a recent research, Bromelain was found to attenuate development of allergic airway disease (AAD), while altering CD4+ to CD8+T lymphocyte populations. From this reduction in AAD outcomes it was suggested that bromelain may have similar effects in the treatment of human asthma and hypersensitivity disorders []. In another study, carried out by Juhasz et al., Bromelain was proved to exhibit the ability of inducing cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury through Akt/Foxo pathway in rat myocardium [].

4.2. Bromelain Relieves Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in Western countries; in USA prevalence of osteoarthritis ranges from 3.2 to 33% dependent on the joint []. A combination of bromelain, trypsin, and rutin was compared to diclofenac in 103 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. After six weeks, both treatments resulted in significant and similar reduction in the pain and inflammation []. Bromelain is a food supplement that may provide an alternative treatment to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) []. It plays an important role in the pathogenesis of arthritis []. Bromelain has analgesic properties which are thought to be the result of its direct influence on pain mediators such as bradykinin []. The earliest reported studies investigating bromelain were a series of case reports on 28 patients, with moderate or severe rheumatoid or osteoarthritis [].

4.3. Effect of Bromelain on Immunogenicity

Bromelain has been recommended as an adjuvant therapeutic approach in the treatment of chronic inflammatory, malignant, and autoimmune diseases []. In vitro experiments have shown that Bromelain has the ability to modulate surface adhesion molecules on T cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells and also induce the secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) []. Bromelain can block the Raf-1/extracellular-regulated-kinase- (ERK-) 2 pathways by inhibiting the T cell signal transduction []. Treatment of cells with bromelain decreases the activation of CD4 (+) T cells and reduce the expression of CD25 []. Moreover, there is evidence that oral therapy with bromelain produces certain analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, which is one of the most common autoimmune diseases [].

4.4. Effect of Bromelain on Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis

Bromelain influences blood coagulation by increasing the serum fibrinolytic ability and by inhibiting the synthesis of fibrin, a protein involved in blood clotting []. In rats, the reduction of serum fibrinogen level by bromelain is dose dependent. At a higher concentration of bromelain, both prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) are markedly prolonged []. In vitro and in vivostudies have suggested that bromelain is an effective fibrinolytic agent as it stimulates the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, resulting in increased fibrinolysis by degrading fibrin [].

4.5. Effects of Bromelain on Diarrhea

Evidence has suggested that bromelain counteracts some of the effects of certain intestinal pathogens like Vibrio cholera and Escherichia coli, whose enterotoxin causes diarrhoea in animals. Bromelain appears to exhibit this effect by interacting with intestinal secretory signaling pathways, including adenosine 3′ : 5′-cyclic monophosphatase, guanosine 3′ : 5′-cyclic monophosphatase, and calcium-dependent signaling cascades []. Other studies suggest a different mechanism of action. In E. coli infection, an active supplementation with bromelain leads to some antiadhesion effects which prevent the bacteria from attaching to specific glycoprotein receptors located on the intestinal mucosa by proteolytically modifying the receptor attachment sites [].

4.6. Effect of Bromelain on Cancer Cells

Recent studies have shown that bromelain has the capacity to modify key pathways that support malignancy. Presumably, the anticancerous activity of bromelain is due to its direct impact on cancer cells and their microenvironment, as well as on the modulation of immune, inflammatory, and haemostatic systems []. Most of the in vitro and in vivo studies on anticancer activity of bromelain are concentrated on mouse and human cells, both cancerous and normal, treated with bromelain preparations. In an experiment conducted by Beez et al chemically induced mouse skin papillomas were treated with bromelain and they observed that it reduced tumor formation, tumor volume and caused apoptotic cell death []. In one study related to bromelain treatment of gastric carcinoma Kato III cell lines, significant reduction of cell growth was observed [] while in another study bromelain reduced the invasive capacity of glioblastoma cells and reduced de novo protein synthesis []. Bromelain is found to increase the expression of p53 and Bax in mouse skin, the well-known activators of apoptosis []. Bromelain also decreases the activity of cell survival regulators such as Akt and Erk, thus promoting apoptotic cell death in tumours. Different studies have demonstrated the role of NF-κB, Cox-2, and PGE2 as promoters of cancer progression. Evidence shows that the signaling and overexpression of NF-κB plays an important part in many types of cancers []. Cox-2, a multiple target gene of NF-κB, facilitates the conversion of arachidonic acid into PGE2 and thus promotes tumour angiogenesis and progression []. It is considered that inhibiting NF-κB, Cox-2, and PGE2 activity has potential as a treatment of cancer. Bromelain was found to downregulate NF-κB and Cox-2 expression in mouse papillomas [] and in models of skin tumourigenesis []. Bromelain was also shown to inhibit bacterial endotoxin (LPS)-induced NF-κB activity as well as the expression of PGE2 and Cox-2 in human monocytic leukemia and murine microglial cell lines []. Bromelain markedly has in vivo antitumoural activity for the following cell lines: P-388 leukemia, sarcoma (S-37), Ehrlich ascetic tumour, Lewis lung carcinoma, and ADC-755 mammary adenocarcinoma. In these studies, intraperitoneal administration of bromelain after 24 hours of tumour cell inoculation resulted in tumour regression [].

4.7. Role of Bromelain in Surgery

Administration of bromelain before a surgery can reduce the average number of days for complete disappearance of pain and postsurgery inflammation []. Trials indicate that bromelain might be effective in reducing swelling, bruising, and pain in women having episiotomy []. Nowadays, bromelain is used for treating acute inflammation and sports injuries [].

4.8. Role of Bromelain in Debridement Burns

The removal of damaged tissue from wounds or second/third degree burns is termed as debridement. Bromelain applied as a cream (35% bromelain in a lipid base) can be beneficial for debridement of necrotic tissue and acceleration of healing. Bromelain contains escharase which is responsible for this effect. Escharase is nonproteolytic and has no hydrolytic enzyme activity against normal protein substrate or various glycosaminoglycan substrates. Its activity varies greatly with different preparations []. In two different enzymatic debridement studies carried out in porcine model, using different bromelain-based agents, namely, Debriding Gel Dressing (DGD) and Debrase Gel Dressing showed rapid removal of the necrotic layer of the dermis with preservation of the unburned tissues []. In another study on Chinese landrace pigs, enzymatic debridement using topical bromelain in incised wound tracks accelerated the recovery of blood perfusion, pO2in wound tissue, controlled the expression of TNF-α, and raised the expression of TGT-β []. Enzymatic debridement using bromelain is better than surgical debridement as surgical incision is painful, nonselective and exposes the patients to the risk of repeated anaesthesia and significant bleeding [].

4.9. Toxicity of Bromelain

According to Taussig et al. [] bromelain has very low toxicity with an LD50(lethal doses) greater than 10 g/kg in mice, rates, and rabbits. Toxicity tests on dogs, with increasing level of bromelain up to 750 mg/kg administered daily, showed no toxic effects after six months. Dosages of 1500 mg/kg per day when administered to rats showed no carcinogenic or teratogenic effects and did not provoke any alteration in food intake, histology of heart, growth, spleen, kidney, or hematological parameters []. Eckert et al. [] after giving bromelain (3000 FIP unit/day) to human over a period of ten days found no significant changes in blood coagulation parameters.

5. Conclusion

Bromelain has a wide range of therapeutic benefits, but the mode of its action is not properly understood. It is proved that bromelain is well absorbed in body after oral administration and it has no major side effects, even after prolonged use. All the evidences reviewed in this paper suggest that bromelain can be used as an effective health supplement to prevent cancer, diabetes, and various cardiovascular diseases in the long run.

6. Future Trends and Perspectives

Bromelain can be a promising candidate for the development of oral enzyme therapies for oncology patients. It is clear from this paper that bromelain is a multiaction enzyme; however, more research is required to understand the proper mechanism of action of bromelain so that the multiaction activities of bromelain can be harnessed efficiently.


The authors are grateful to DEAN, Department of Biotechnology, IBMER, Mangalayatan University, Aligarh, India, for providing necessary facilities and encouragement. They are also thankful to all faculty members of the Institute of Biomedical Education and Research, Mangalayatan University, Aligarh, India, for their generous help and suggestions during the paper preparation.


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Acanthosis Nigricans

Acanthosis Nigricans

Acanthosis nigricans is a skin condition characterized by areas of dark, velvety discoloration in body folds and creases. The affected skin can become thickened. Most often, acanthosis nigricans affects your armpits, groin and neck.

The skin changes of acanthosis nigricans (ak-an-THOE-sis NIE-grih-kuns) typically occur in people who are obese or have diabetes. Children who develop the condition are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Rarely, acanthosis nigricans can be a warning sign of a cancerous tumor in an internal organ, such as the stomach or liver.

No specific treatment is available for acanthosis nigricans. Treatment of underlying conditions may restore some of the normal color and texture to affected areas of skin.

What Is Acanthosis Nigricans?

If you have acanthosis nigricans, you’re probably concerned about how it looks. You’ll notice that your skin is thicker and darker, especially around joints and areas with lots of creases and folds, like your knuckles, armpits, elbows, knees, and neck.

Some people see thicker, darker skin on the palms of their hands, inner thighs, groin, lips, or other areas. The skin usually stays soft, which is why the word “velvety” is often used to describe the symptoms of acanthosis nigricans.

Many people who have acanthosis nigricans have no other symptoms and are otherwise healthy. But because acanthosis nigricans can be a sign of other medical conditions, it’s a good idea for it to be checked out by a doctor.
<h3″>What Causes Acanthosis Nigricans?

People who are overweight or obese are more likely to develop acanthosis nigricans, which often lessens or goes away with weight loss. Some people with the condition inherit it. Certain medicines — for example, birth control pills or hormone treatments — also can cause acanthosis nigricans.

Sometimes, it’s seen in people who have type 2 diabetes or who are at greater risk for getting this type of diabetes. In these cases, acanthosis nigricans itself isn’t dangerous. But it can be a sign to doctors to check someone for diabetes or other health problems. Sometimes, finding and treating the health problem might make the person’s skin condition improve or clear up.

Almost 75% of kids with type 2 diabetes develop acanthosis nigricans, according to the American Diabetes Association. For many, getting their diabetes and weight (if they are overweight) under control goes a long way toward lessening the visibility of acanthosis nigricans.

What to Do

First of all, don’t panic. Acanthosis nigricans itself isn’t harmful or contagious. But you should see a doctor to make sure it’s not caused by something that does need attention. In some cases, acanthosis nigricans can be a signal that you’re at risk for diabetes. Whenever you notice a change in the color, thickness, or texture of your skin, it’s wise to see a health professional.

What to Expect

If you’re diagnosed with acanthosis nigricans, your doctor might want you to have a blood test or other tests to try to find what’s causing it or to look for other conditions (like type 2 diabetes) that happen more often in people with acanthosis nigricans.

Treatment for Acanthosis Nigricans

If your doctor finds that your acanthosis nigricans isn’t connected to a more serious medical condition, you don’t need to treat it. But you might want to if your doctor thinks there’s a way to help improve the appearance of your skin. Sometimes, acanthosis nigricans fades on its own.

Your doctor may prescribe lotions or creams. Ask as many questions as you need to in order to understand when and how to follow the treatment plan.

It’s easy to fall into believing the hype about bleaches, skin scrubs, and over-the-counter exfoliating treatments. But these aren’t likely to work and can irritate your skin, not to mention waste money!

Maintaining a healthy weight by staying physically active and eating well can help prevent or treat acanthosis nigricans in some cases.

You also should make plans to take care of yourself in other ways. Because this condition is visible, some people with acanthosis nigricans feel self-conscious or embarrassed about the way their skin looks. It can help to talk to a counselor, doctor, friend, or even peer support group to help you feel more confident. Your doctor or nurse probably can help you find local or online support groups. And don’t be afraid to talk to your friends. Good friends are the best support!

42+5 Unbelievable Facts About Weight Loss

Why 42+5 you ask? Because 42 is the Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, The Universe, and Everything from the supercomputer, Deep Thought, specially built for this purpose. Seems like a good place to start…8-)

~Content Source~

  • During the 19th century, a diet called “Fletcherism” became popular. Introduced by American Horace Fletcher “the Great Masticator” the diet promoted chewing a mouthful of food at least 32 times or until it was turned into liquid. He argued his method of eating could help people avoid disease and lose weight.
  • Elvis Presley was famously a fan of the “Sleeping Beauty Diet,” or a diet where a person was sedated for days at time. The reasoning behind the diet was a sleeping person wouldn’t eat.
  • Losing weight alters brain activity. For example, after following a weight loss program for 6 months, women scored better on memory tests. Research has also linked obesity are poor memory, especially in overweight pear-shaped women.
  • A fat cell lives for about 7 years. When a fat cell dies, a new one grows to replace it. The body keeps track of how many fat cells it has as well as the amount of fat in each cell. It fat cells are removed by liposuction, for example, the body compensates by growing new fat cells in other areas of the body.
  • Obesity has been linked to several types of cancer. Specifically, being overweight causes inflammation that causes cell changes in the body. However, just by losing 5% of your body weight can significantly lower dangerous levels of inflammation.
  • According to a University of Minnesota study, people is disorganized work spaces are more likely to choose unhealthy snacks.
  • After undergoing bariatric surgery, approximately 87% of patients said their taste buds had changed. Almost half of them said food didn’t taste as good, so they didn’t eat as much. Additionally, people had less of a preference for salty foods.
  • Losing weight can reduce arthritis symptoms.
  • A recent study found that eating dark chocolate in moderate amounts is associated with lower levels of abdominal fat. Scientists speculate that the antioxidants may help fight inflammation and improve metabolic functioning.
  • Scientists believe there are as many as 100 different types of “fat genes,” or genes that increase the likelihood of someone developing type 2 diabetes and becoming obese. However, scientists note that obesity-promoting genes can be offset by regular exercise and a healthy diet.
  • In the first half of the 20th century, cigarette makers regularly touted their products as a weight loss aid. One 1929 advertisement proclaimed, “Light a Lucky and you’ll never miss a sweet that makes you fat.
  • Studies of twins reveal that fat cells in a heavier twin underwent metabolic changes that made it harder for them to burn fat. Even gaining as little as 11 pounds slows a person’s metabolism—which, it turn, leads to even more weight gain.
  • The “Byron Diet” is named after Victorian poet Lord Byron who would eat bizarre foods such as potatoes drenched in vinegar in an effort to look fashionably thin and pale.
  • Stress can make it difficult to lose weight. Stress can trigger cravings for carb-rich snack foods which tend to calm stress hormones. Stress hormones can also increase fat storage. In addition to physical exercise, relaxation techniques can help control weight.
  • Sleep deprivation can make it harder to lose weight. Inadequate sleep upsets a person’s hormone balance, which decreases leptin (a hormone that makes a person feel full) and increases ghrelin (which triggers hunger). Scientists argue that getting enough sleep is the cheapest and easiest obesity medicine.
  • Studies found those who suffered from severe ear infections had a more difficult time losing weight. Scientists believe that such infections may damage a taste nerve that runs through the middle ear. The damaged nerve means that a person would have a higher threshold for sensing sweetness and fattiness.
  • Amid the many hundreds of diet books are really only four basic rules for weight loss: 1) eat carbs in the form of whole grains or fiber, 2) avoid trans and saturated fats, 3) eat lean protein, and 4) eat lots of fruits and vegetables.
  • While weight loss pills may help a person lose weight temporarily, they can cause other negative side effects, such as severe mood swings and depression.
  • Researchers note that having sex within a committed, healthy relationship can aid in weight loss, though it shouldn’t replace one’s daily workout. On average, sex burns 150–250 calories per half hour and helps decrease stress.
  • According to one study, using red plates helps people eat less. Researchers believe that the color red is associated with stopping and caution, which subconsciously encourages people to be more aware of what they are eating and how often.
  • According to the journal Obesity, paying for meals with cash increases the likelihood someone will buy more healthful food.
  • A recent study found that those who took more breaks from sitting throughout the day had slimmer waists, lower BMI, and healthier blood fat and blood sugar levels than those who sat the most. In short, the longer a person sits, the more likely they are to die an early death.
  • People who are leaner move an average of 150 minutes more per day than overweight people. Simply getting off of a chair and moving helps turn on fat burning enzymes and increase blood flow.
  • Energy levels typically skyrocket after losing unwanted weight because carrying less weight means using less energy to simply get through day. Additionally, weight loss improves oxygen efficiency, which leads to less huffing and puffing.
  • Sitting at desk burns 83 calories per hour. Standing at desk burns 115 calories per hour. Riding an elevator burns 128 calories an hour. Taking the stairs burns 509.
  • Watching TV burns 64 calories an hour. Making out burns 96.
  • Night owls may be more likely to pack on the pounds than early birds. Studies find that people who go to bed late eat more food, have worse diets, and are more likely to have a higher body mass index BMI than those who go to bed earlier.
  • Studies show that those who travel most for work have a harder time losing weight and tend to have a greater risk of obesity.
  • Muscle uses more calories to maintain itself than any other body tissue. For every pound of muscle someone puts on, they automatically burn an extra 22 to 36 more calories a day.
  • An Ohio State University study found that women who reported stress in the previous 24 hours burned 104 calories fewer than non-stressed women after a high-fat meal.
  • Female breasts are almost made up entirely of fat. This is why breasts tend to reduce in size before other parts of the body with weight loss.
  • One pound of fat equals 3,500 calories.
  • In the “Tapeworm Diet” some people swallow tapeworms to help them lose weight. Unfortunately, side effects include bloating, nausea, and diarrhea-as well as the possibility that the tape worm might lay eggs in other tissues, such as the nervous system, which could cause seizures, dementia, and meningitis.
  • Researchers note that Americans eat for lots of reason, but usually not because of hunger. They eat because of family, friends, packages, plates, names, numbers, labels, lights, colors, candles, shapes, smells, and containers and a myriad of other “food cues.”
  • Someone who has soda readily available and in sight at home weighs on average 25 pounds more than someone who doesn’t.
  • Researchers noted that keeping serving dishes off the table reduced the amount of food men ate by 29%.
  • In a study, heavy people sat, on average, 16 feet closer to buffet food than skinny people did. Additionally, the skinnier people who ate at the buffet looked over all the food, made a plan, and then got their food. The heavier people just dove right in with no perusing or planning. Heavier people at the buffest also chewed 12 times per mouthful; skinnier people chewed an average of 15 times.
  • People who have candy on or in their desk reported weighing 15.4 more pounds than those who didn’t.
  • Google did an experiment with M&Ms at their headquarters. When they put the candy in containers instead of out in the open, people ate 3 million fewer pieces within one month’s time.
  • Posting photos of low-calorie foods on the fridge may help in weight loss. Pictures act as subtle reminder of a person’s weight loss goals. Researchers also suggest making the background on a smartphone a low-cal food.
  • Shopping while hungry makes people not only buy more food, it also makes them buy more junk food
  • Study participants who scored in the top 10% on impulsivity weighed an average of 22 pounds more than those in the bottom 10%.
  • Regularly smelling peppermint may help decrease hunger and, consequently, caloric intake. Researchers believe the strong scent is distracting and helps keeps a person’s mind off of their appetite.
  • On average, if someone eats with one other person, they will eat about 35% more than if eating alone. If someone eats with a group of seven or more, they’ll eat nearly twice as much, or 96% more than if they were eating alone.
  • Studies show that if someone eats with an overweight friend, or if their waitress is overweight, they’ll eat more. However, a woman eating with a man will typically eat less.
  • Greek physician and philosopher Galen explained 2,000 years ago that “bad humors” were the cause of obesity. He prescribed massages, baths, and “slimming foods” such as greens, garlic, and wild game as a way to lose weight.
  • Weight loss drugs first entered mainstream markets during the 1920s. Physicians would prescribe thyroid medication to healthy people to help them lose weight.