Vitamin C and Iodine/Iodide

Vitamin C and Lugols Iodine

Lugol’s should not be mixed with beverages that contain vitamin C as this would convert the iodine into iodide, essentially turning Lugols into super saturated potassium iodide.

There is a lot of debate over whether the iodine converts to iodide inside our body if we we were to consume them at the same time, but it’s probably not a bad idea to wait 2 hours between consuming the two, just to be safe.

Fungal Genome Initiative-Aspergillus Genome Projects


Perhaps no other fungal genus contains species that are so harmful and species that are so beneficial to humans as the genus Aspergillus (1), and a large number of Aspergillus species are of biomedical and industrial significance. For example, A. nidulans is a key fungal model system for genetics and cell biology (2, 3), A. niger is widely exploited by the fermentation industry for the production of citric acid, whereas A. oryzae plays a key role in the fermentation process of several traditional Japanese beverages and sauces (4). In contrast, A. flavus is a plant and animal pathogen that also produces the potent carcinogen aflatoxin (5), whereas several other species (most notably A. fumigatus and A. terreus) are important opportunistic pathogens of individuals with compromised immune systems (6).

The genome sequences of A. nidulans (7), A. fumigatus (6) and A. oryzae (4) represented an enormous advance in the study of Aspergillus, providing the foundation for comparative and functional genomics studies. As part of the Fungal Genome Initiative, we have sequenced and annotated an additional Aspergillus species, A. terreus. Four additional recently sequenced genomes also fall within this phylogenetic group: A. flavusA. nigerA. clavatus, and Neosartorya fischeri. The profoundly different lifestyles exhibited by each of this growing set of Aspergillus species for which genome sequences are available coupled with the varying degrees of evolutionary affinity shared by their genomes make Aspergillus a model clade to address fundamental questions in functional and comparative genomics.


1. Volk, T., (1997) Aspergillus in Fungus of the Month,
2. Pontecorvo, G., Roper, J. A., Hemmons, L. M., Macdonald, K. D. and Bufton, A. W. (1953) The genetics of Aspergillus nidulans. Adv. Genet. 5, 141-238.
3. Morris, N. R. and Enos, A. P. (1992) Mitotic gold in a mold: Aspergillus genetics and the biology of mitosis. Trends Genet. 8, 32-37.
4. Machida, M. et al. (2005) Genome sequencing and analysis of Aspergillus oryzae. Nature 438, 1157-1161.
5. Payne, G. A. et al. (2006) Whole genome comparison of Aspergillus flavus and A. oryzae. Med. Mycol. 44 Suppl, 9-11.
6. Nierman, W. C. et al. (2005) Genomic sequence of the pathogenic and allergenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Nature 438, 1151-1156.
7. Galagan, J. E. et al. (2005) Sequencing of Aspergillus nidulans and comparative analysis with A. fumigatus and A. oryzae. Nature 438, 1105-1115.

Advances in citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger: Biochemical aspects, membrane transport and modeling

Research Review Paper

Maria Papagianni ⁎
Department of Hygiene and Technology of Food of Animal Origin, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,
54006 Thessaloniki, Greece
Received 8 October 2006; received in revised form 11 January 2007; accepted 11 January 2007
Available online 19 January 2007

Content Source

Citric acid is regarded as a metabolite of energy metabolism, of which the concentration will rise to appreciable amounts only under conditions of substantive metabolic imbalances. Citric acid fermentation conditions were established during the 1930s and 1940s, when the effects of various medium components were evaluated.

The biochemical mechanism by which Aspergillus niger accumulates citric acid has continued to attract interest even though its commercial production by fermentation has been established for decades. Although extensive basic biochemical research has been carried out with A. niger, the understanding of the events relevant for citric acid accumulation is not completely understood. This review is focused on citric acid fermentation by A. niger.

Emphasis is given to aspects of fermentation biochemistry, membrane transport in A. niger and modeling of the production process.

© 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PDF: Advances in citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger: Biochemical aspects, membrane transport and modeling

Additional reading-PDF: Comparative genomics of citric-acid-producing
Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing
CBS 513.88