Antimicrobial Effects of Antipyretics


ABSTRACT: Antipyretics are some of the most commonly used drugs. Since they are often co-administered with antimicrobial therapy, it is important to understand the interactions between these two classes of drugs. Our review is the first to summarize the antimicrobial effects of antipyretic drugs and the underlying mechanisms involved. Antipyretics can inhibit virus replication, inhibit or promote bacterial or fungal growth, alter the expression of virulence factors, change the surface hydrophobicity of microbes, influence biofilm production, affect the motility, adherence, and metabolism of pathogens, interact with the transport and release of antibiotics by leukocytes, modify the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics, and induce or reduce the frequency of mutations leading to antimicrobial resistance. While antipyretics may compromise the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy, they can also be beneficial, for example, in the management of biofilm-associated infections, in reducing virulence factors, in therapy of resistant pathogens, and in inducing synergistic effects. In an era where it is becoming increasingly difficult to find new antimicrobial drugs, targeting virulence factors, enhancing the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy, and reducing resistance may be important strategies.

KEYWORDS: NSAIDs, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, paracetamol, antibacterial, antimicrobial, efflux pumps

Iodine-Steroidogenesis, Fat Burning and Muscle Building

~Content Source

Iodine is used by the thyroid to produce thyroid hormones, and is actually used by other tissue as well. Only 80% of iodine is found in the thyroid, whereas the other 20% are found in other tissue such as salivary glands, gastric mucosa, the choroid plexus (brain), ciliary body of the eye, lacrimal gland, thymus, skin, placenta, prostate, and pancreas…

Oceans are the main source, where soil contains very little. Foods that grow close to the sea contains more iodine, due to the sea winds that bring iodine to he soil. Seaweeds such as wakame, nori or mekabu, contains significant amounts of iodine.

The thyroid manufactures thyroid hormones in the gland from one molecule of the amino acid tyrosine and iodine—four iodine atoms per tyrosine molecule in the case of thyroxine (T4), and three iodine atoms in the case of triiodothyronine (T3).

99% of all thyroid hormones are bound to proteins, while only 1% is free in serum. 80% of T3 is deiodinated from T4, to be used by tissue. T4 crosses the blood brain barrier better than T3, so he brain requires more T4 as it can covert it to T3. A decrease in T4 result in an increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) which signals the thyroid to produce more thyroid hormones. TSH also increases the conversion of T4 to T3.

Major effects of thyroid hormones:

  • Regulates basal metabolic rate
  • Regulates nutrient metabolism (digestion, absorption, transport, insulin sensitivity etc…)
  • Regulates on ion transport/muscle contraction
  • Development, growth (height and muscle size), and steroidogenesis

Being more active and healthy, with a fast metabolism and high testosterone production demands more thyroid hormones, spesifically T3.

Many other nutrients are important for optimal thyroid function as well as the conversion of T4 to T3. Few of these nutrients include vitamin A, selenium, vitamin D, zinc, magnesium, vitamin B6, and more.

For e.g. a deficiency is zinc, selenium and iodine decreases TSH, T4 and T3.

About 120mcg of iodine is sufficient for thyroid hormone production. But it’s just the very bare minimum requirement, same as with the minimum vitamin D requirement to prevent rickets.

As toxins, halogens, inflammation, infection increase, so does the need for iodine and it’s cofactors.

Same goes for increased physical activity, steroidogenesis, metabolism all require more thyroid hormone to function more effectively.

Once the thyroid is saturated with iodine (which requires much more than just the RDA of 150mcg to saturate), it further detoxes, replaces and protects the thyroid from radioactive elements as well as toxic halogens which can interfere with thyroid hormone production, such as chlorine, fluoride, bromine and heavy metals such as mercury, lead, aluminium, copper etc.

Powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-septic and anti-cancer

Iodine is one of the best free radical scavengers and immune system supporters. It neutralizes and breaks down hydrogen peroxide to form water, preventing he formation of a hydroxyl radical. I2 exerts a 10- or 50-fold greater antioxidant action than ascorbic acid or KI (potassium iodide), respectively.

Iodine also suppresses the levels of pro-inflammatory messengers such as nitric oxide, prostaglandin-E2 (which increases estrogen as well), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β), making iodine a very effective anti-inflammatory mineral.

Iodine has shown to exert powerful antiproliferative action (prevent the spread of cancerous and tumor) via PPARγ receptor activation. Iodine also protects healthy cells against apoptosis (cell death) and induce apoptosis on cancerous cells.

Iodine has also been used to treat asthma, parasites, syphilis, cancer, Graves’ disease, periodontal disease, and arteriosclerosis.

As iodine has been found in the mucous of the stomach, it protects against incoming toxins and also against abnormal growth of bacteria in the stomach, keeping the gut sterile, clean, healthy and protected. Iodine could thus also be a potent agent against the progression of leaky gut.

Seaweeds and other iodine rich plants have been used 4 century BC by Theophrastus, Aristotle’s pupil, to treat wounds, such as from sunburns, and its probably also been used before that by others for wounds/inflections.

Adaptogen and anti-cortisol

Animal studies have proven that iodine normalizes elevated adrenal corticosteroid hormone secretion related to stress, so it acts as an adaptogen.


Iodine reverses the effects of hypothyroidism on the testicles. Thyroid hormones increase testosterone synthesis, and inadequate T3 will lead to low testosterone and testosterone receptor sensitivity.

Iodine will protect the testes and testosterone from free radicals and oxidative stress, however, when there too way too much iodine in the testes, without enough cofactors, it can actually increase reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and lower testosterone via down regulation of varies enzymes.

Iodine also binds/interacts with nucleus/steroid receptors and helps to increase receptor sensitivity of T and DHT.

Iodine administration is also able to regenerate damaged Leydig cells (cells in testes where testosterone is made).

Not only does iodine protect the thyroid against toxins such as bromine, flouride, chlorine, etc, but also all other tissue including testes. If toxins and heavy metals are present in testes, proper testosterone synthesis can not occur.


Iodine is potentially anti-estrogenic. As seen in this study, treatment with iodine and iodide increases the mRNA levels (increase the expression and activity) of Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and 1B1 (CYP1B1). These two enzymes are phase I estrogen metabolizing enzymes that oxidizes 17β-estradiol (which is carcinogenic) to 2-hydoxyestradiol (2-OH-E2) and 4-hydoxyestradiol (4-OH-E2), respectively. Higher activity of these enzymes lead to greater catabolism of estrogen and urinary excretion of the metabolites.

Iodine also decreases the levels of the estrogen responsive genes TFF1 and WISP2.

Iodine increases peroxidase activity, which is inversely related to estrogen receptor alpha (ER) concentration, thus restricting estrogen’s action. 2-5mg/day of iodine (I2) diminished translocation of the estrogen receptor alpha.

Iodine treatment increases the catabolism of estrogen and decreases estrogen receptors and estrogen responsiveness to receptors.

Furthermore, iodine saturates as well as inhibit the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, preventing its endocrine and metabolism disrupting actions to a great degree.

Extras and supplements

I advise to stay away from iodated salt and get your iodine from food sources and from supplements containing only organic iodine, not combined with inorganic iodine.

Weston Price reported that the intake of iodine was 131-175 mcg for the Inuit (about the level of the DRI) and 25-34 mcg for Canadian Indians (considered very low, although they did not exhibit thyroid problems). Traditional food of Japanese contains significant amounts of dietary iodine, and they possibly consume at least 7000 mcg of iodine daily from kombu alone with no suppressive effect on the thyroid.

Liquid iodine is clean iodine with a mix of organic and inorganic iodine. Kelp/seaweeds contains just organic iodine as well as many other rare essential trace minerals that your body also needs. I would be much harder, if not impossible, to overdose on iodine from kelp. I don’t think it’s necessary to take more than 1mg daily, unless you need to flush out other metals that’s interfering with your thyroid or when you want to lower excessive estrogen. Under those circumstance you could increase your dosage until you see the symptoms diminish and you have found your sweet spot.

Neem Kills Cancer

Selective Induction of Apoptosis by Azadarichta indica(Neem) Leaf Extract by Targeting Oxidative Vulnerabilities in Human Cancer Cells. ~ NIH-PubMed

Full Article PDF ~ 25221-66203-1-PB


Natural products have been a great source of medications used in conventional medicines for the treatment of various diseases; more importantly, they have played a significant role in the development of anti-cancer drugs for a number of decades. The benefits to employing whole extracts of natural health products, rather than a single ingredient, for cancer treatment remains unexplored. Our research group has previously demonstrated the potential anti-cancer benefits of several natural health products (NHPs), prompting further studies into other NHPs, such as Neem (Azadarichta indica), a tree native to India and has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for over 4000 years. The objective of this study is to determine the possible anti-cancer potential of aqueous and ethanolic Neem leaf extracts (NLEs) and to identify the specific mode(s) of action.


Cells were treated with NLE and cell viability was then assessed using a water-soluble tetrazolium salt. Cell death was confirmed using the fluorescent dye propidium iodide and apoptosis was identified using the Annexin-V binding assay. Mitochondrial membrane permeabilization was visualized using JC-1 staining and the production of whole cell and mitochondrial ROS was measured with 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) and Amplex Red, respectively. In vivo efficacy of aqueous NLE was assessed in human tumour xenografts in CD-1 nu/nu immunocompromised mice.


Results indicate that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Neem leaf were effective in inducing apoptosis in leukemia and colon cancer cells, following destabilization of the mitochondrial membrane. Furthermore, an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in cancer cells treated with NLEs, indicating that oxidative stress may play a role in the mechanism of cell death. Additionally, in vivo results showed that aqueous NLE (delivered orally) was well tolerated and inhibited tumour growth of humanxenografts in mice.


These findings suggest the potential of NLEs as safer and effective alternatives to conventional chemotherapy. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see “For Readers”) may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue’s contents page.