Research Review Paper
Maria Papagianni ⁎
Department of Hygiene and Technology of Food of Animal Origin, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,
54006 Thessaloniki, Greece
Received 8 October 2006; received in revised form 11 January 2007; accepted 11 January 2007
Available online 19 January 2007
Citric acid is regarded as a metabolite of energy metabolism, of which the concentration will rise to appreciable amounts only under conditions of substantive metabolic imbalances. Citric acid fermentation conditions were established during the 1930s and 1940s, when the effects of various medium components were evaluated.
The biochemical mechanism by which Aspergillus niger accumulates citric acid has continued to attract interest even though its commercial production by fermentation has been established for decades. Although extensive basic biochemical research has been carried out with A. niger, the understanding of the events relevant for citric acid accumulation is not completely understood. This review is focused on citric acid fermentation by A. niger.
Emphasis is given to aspects of fermentation biochemistry, membrane transport in A. niger and modeling of the production process.
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