[18F]Fluorodexyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans have significantly improved the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer, but false-positive scans are known to occur due to inflammatory and infectious diseases.
Recognition of the conditions leading to false-positive scans is important. Single or multiple pulmonary nodules, with or without cavitation, are classical findings in acute and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Clinical features of pulmonary aspergillosis are very similar to those of lung cancer.
This report highlights pulmonary aspergillosis as an alternative diagnosis to lung cancer in patients with positive [18F] FDG PET scans and the need to strive for presurgical histological diagnosis.