Cancer Cell ‘Ferment’ Sugar to Speed Their Metabolism and Spread

~ Content Source

Cancer cells are known to be able to speed up their metabolism, reprogramming it so they can proliferate more quickly. Now, researchers have identified one way that tumors alter their metabolism — fermenting rather than burning up glucose for energy, called the Warburg Hypothesis — a finding that may lead to a new way of treating virtually all cancers.

Indeed, the study, “Addiction to Coupling of the Warburg Effect with Glutamine Catabolism in Cancer Cells,” published in Cell Reports, shows that inhibiting one of the enzymes required for this skewed metabolism was sufficient to slow or halt the growth of colon cancer cells.

The researchers also identified, for the first time, how cancer-causing mutations can alter the way cancer cells metabolize specific nutrient sources in order to replicate.

“Every tissue or cell type in the body has different metabolic needs but as cells become cancerous their metabolism shifts in ways that are very different from normal cells,” Joshua Munger, PhD, an associate professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics, said in a press release. “Being able to identify those differences is critical for developing treatment targets.”

Scientists have known for decades that cancer cells take up the glucose in the blood at alarming rates. But these cells addiction to sugar is only one part of the story, said Hucky Land, PhD, the Robert and Dorothy Markin professor and chair of Biomedical Genetics, and director of research at the URMC’s Wilmot Cancer Institute, who closely collaborated with Munger on this project.

While sugar is the primary source of energy and biosynthesis for healthy cells, in cancer cells it is metabolized differently; instead of burning sugar to produce large amounts of energy, cancer cells ferment sugar, to give them a more continual source of energy for fast cell division and proliferation.

Cancer-causing mutations are responsible for this change in these cells’ metabolism, the researchers discovered. And they found that fermented glucose also allows cancer cells to increase their consumption of glutamine, another nutrient source that is abundant in the bloodstream.

“Our paper demonstrates that cancer cells, but not normal cells, depend on this link between sugar fermentation and glutamine consumption,” Land said. “This suggests a novel way that we might be able to intervene with treatment.”

To test their hypothesis, the researchers used colon cancer cell lines resulting from two specific cancer-causing mutations. They found that the glutamine uptake was critical for the cancer cell malignant transformation, and that inhibiting an enzyme involved in glutamine consumption prevented the growth of these cancer cells.

A number of early clinical trials are now testing ways to target cancer cells’ altered metabolism. This research may have found a key mechanism to apply to this concept, but further studies are required.

“Is it possible to apply this to other cancers? That’s our next question,” Munger said. “We’re testing how this could be broadly applied in the clinic.”

Modified Citrus Pectin

~Content Source

Modified Citrus Pectin (MCP) is a complex polysaccharide derived from the soluble fiber of citrus peels, resulting in lower-molecular weight, un-branched chains rich in galactosyl residues. Research documents the ability of these fragments to provide an alternative target to galectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins specific to the sugar galactose) involved in the mobility and adherence to distal sites of abnormal cells. Supports normal cell-surface molecule interaction. Modified citrus pectin is easily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and is useful for energy metabolism as well as a laxative.

• Supports normal cell-surface molecule interaction
• Interferes with metastasis

Modified Citrus Pectin Powder: We all fear abnormal growths in our bodies, knowing the horrors of cancer and its standard treatment. But such growths need not become true cancers. So long as the growth remains a localized problem, confined to a relatively safe location like the skin, it can be a manageable health challenge rather than an all- consuming assault on the body’s tissues and resources. So- called “benign” tumors are the kind that will simply stay put, lacking the ability to invade or colonize other tissues.

But in other cases, a tumor is able to extend its dark empire. The main way that this can happen is when cancer cells break off from the main tumor, get taken up into the bloodstream, travel to distant organs, and – like bad seed in good soil – germinate a new, hostile tendril, putting down roots and beginning a fresh cycle of parasitical growth. Thus a deadly new phase in the disease is initiated, in which new tumors are formed, buried deep in critical organs like the brain.

This cancerous colonization process is known as metastasis, and metastasis – rather than the original tumor – is what kills most people who suffer with cancer. In fact, only tumors that are able to invade, or metastasize to, other tissues, are properly called cancers, and it’s the metastatic property of such tumors that doctors appropriately label “malignant.”

MCP: “Chaff” Against Metastasis: Mounting evidence suggests that there is a natural way to prevent cancer cells from taking advantage of galectin-3: pH-modified citrus pectin, or MCP. Pectin from citrus fruits contains a significant number of residues of the sugar galactose – the same kind of sugar residues to which, galectin-3 binds when they are found on its glycoconjugate. Potentially, these residues could interact with galectin-3 and prevent it from interacting with its glycoconjugates, thereby protecting healthy tissues from being targeted by metastasizing cancer cells. The idea would be to use these molecules like the “chaff” which fighter pilots release to foil the guidance systems of missiles, which have “locked on” to their planes.

Unfortunately, most of the pectin in citrus fruits is present in the form of long, complex chains whose galactose residues are hidden deep within their intricate molecular branchings. As a result, galectin-3 can’t interact with these galactose residues, and the “chaffing” potential of the pectin is lost. To solve this problem, the carbohydrate chains can be split into shorter fragments under pH-controlled conditions, exposing more galactose residues and simplifying the complicated branchings of the molecule. This process maximizes the opportunities for the fiber’s galactose residues to interact with galectin-3. Working with the fibers of lemons, grapefruits, or tangerines in this way creates pH-modified citrus pectin (MCP).

Numerous studies in both isolated cells and living organisms have shown that MCP can block the metastatic potential of many different kinds of cancer. In the most remarkable of these studies, Dr. Kenneth Pienta and his colleagues at the Wayne State University School of Medicine tested the power of MCP supplements to block metastasis of prostate cancer cells in experimental animals. After injecting one million prostate cancer cells into each of the animals and giving the cancer time to take hold in their bodies, the scientists divided the animals into four groups. One group drank plain water, but the other five groups drank water supplemented with increasing amounts of MCP.

MCP had no effect on the original tumor. This is what you’d expect: the supplement is in no way toxic to healthy or cancerous cells, but instead intervenes directly in key steps in the metastatic process. And intervene it did. Over the course of one month, 15 of the 16 animals, which did not receive MCP supplements developed metastases in their lungs. By contrast, as published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, the researchers found that MCP dramatically reduces the metastatic spread of prostate cancer in these animals.

Even at the lowest dose, the number of metastases per animal was cut by 40%. At higher doses, the effect was even more impressive. Fully forty to fifty percent of the animals receiving high-dose MCP were completely free of metastasis. And even in cases where MCP was unable to completely prevent the spread of the disease, metastasis was literally decimated: the number of lung metastases per animal was slashed by as much as 89%. On top of this, MCP also reduced the number of animals with lymph node disease: while 55% of the animals who got no MCP suffered with the disease, all but 13% of the MCP- treated animals were free from lymph node complications.

This study confirmed the results of a previous experiment, using melanoma (skin cancer) cells. The results of the earlier experiment had been astounding. Even the lowest dose of MCP completely prevented metastasis: the metastasis rate was 76.7% in the animals receiving no MCP, while none of those that received MCP supplements suffered new colonization. But the significance of the earlier experiment had been limited, because the researchers had used injections of MCP, not MCP as a supplement to the drinking water. Dr. Pienta’s experiments proved that, in this cancer model, drinking MCP dissolved in water is also a strong shield against the metastatic process in malignant disease.

MCP: The Future: More recently, researchers have discovered new anti-metastasis mechanisms of MCP, including blocking stops angiogenesis (the process whereby cancer cells stimulate the body to grow new blood vessels to feed the tumor), which are stimulated by in galectin-3. And new studies showing that galectin-3 can block anoikis (an anti-cancer defensive mechanism in which abnormal cells are forced to detach from the healthy tissue’s extracellular matrix, leading them to commit cellular “suicide” (apoptosis)) likewise suggest a possible protective effect of MCP.

Most excitingly of all, human phase I and Phase II studies of MCP have been completed in patients with colorectal and pancreatic cancers. While mostly designed to test the safety, rather than the effectiveness, of the supplement, the preliminary results were very suggestive of a true anti- metastatic power of MCP in humans.

Final certainty about MCP as a defense for healthy tissues against cancerous colonization in humans will have to await the results of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III trials. But with the powerful results experienced in other organisms – and the proven safety of this natural supplement – many people facing difficult decisions about their health and future are choosing to embrace hope by taking a chance on MCP today.

Advances in citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger: Biochemical aspects, membrane transport and modeling

Research Review Paper

Maria Papagianni ⁎
Department of Hygiene and Technology of Food of Animal Origin, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,
54006 Thessaloniki, Greece
Received 8 October 2006; received in revised form 11 January 2007; accepted 11 January 2007
Available online 19 January 2007

Content Source

Citric acid is regarded as a metabolite of energy metabolism, of which the concentration will rise to appreciable amounts only under conditions of substantive metabolic imbalances. Citric acid fermentation conditions were established during the 1930s and 1940s, when the effects of various medium components were evaluated.

The biochemical mechanism by which Aspergillus niger accumulates citric acid has continued to attract interest even though its commercial production by fermentation has been established for decades. Although extensive basic biochemical research has been carried out with A. niger, the understanding of the events relevant for citric acid accumulation is not completely understood. This review is focused on citric acid fermentation by A. niger.

Emphasis is given to aspects of fermentation biochemistry, membrane transport in A. niger and modeling of the production process.

© 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PDF: Advances in citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger: Biochemical aspects, membrane transport and modeling

Additional reading-PDF: Comparative genomics of citric-acid-producing
Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing
CBS 513.88

42+5 Unbelievable Facts About Weight Loss

Why 42+5 you ask? Because 42 is the Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, The Universe, and Everything from the supercomputer, Deep Thought, specially built for this purpose. Seems like a good place to start…8-)

~Content Source~

  • During the 19th century, a diet called “Fletcherism” became popular. Introduced by American Horace Fletcher “the Great Masticator” the diet promoted chewing a mouthful of food at least 32 times or until it was turned into liquid. He argued his method of eating could help people avoid disease and lose weight.
  • Elvis Presley was famously a fan of the “Sleeping Beauty Diet,” or a diet where a person was sedated for days at time. The reasoning behind the diet was a sleeping person wouldn’t eat.
  • Losing weight alters brain activity. For example, after following a weight loss program for 6 months, women scored better on memory tests. Research has also linked obesity are poor memory, especially in overweight pear-shaped women.
  • A fat cell lives for about 7 years. When a fat cell dies, a new one grows to replace it. The body keeps track of how many fat cells it has as well as the amount of fat in each cell. It fat cells are removed by liposuction, for example, the body compensates by growing new fat cells in other areas of the body.
  • Obesity has been linked to several types of cancer. Specifically, being overweight causes inflammation that causes cell changes in the body. However, just by losing 5% of your body weight can significantly lower dangerous levels of inflammation.
  • According to a University of Minnesota study, people is disorganized work spaces are more likely to choose unhealthy snacks.
  • After undergoing bariatric surgery, approximately 87% of patients said their taste buds had changed. Almost half of them said food didn’t taste as good, so they didn’t eat as much. Additionally, people had less of a preference for salty foods.
  • Losing weight can reduce arthritis symptoms.
  • A recent study found that eating dark chocolate in moderate amounts is associated with lower levels of abdominal fat. Scientists speculate that the antioxidants may help fight inflammation and improve metabolic functioning.
  • Scientists believe there are as many as 100 different types of “fat genes,” or genes that increase the likelihood of someone developing type 2 diabetes and becoming obese. However, scientists note that obesity-promoting genes can be offset by regular exercise and a healthy diet.
  • In the first half of the 20th century, cigarette makers regularly touted their products as a weight loss aid. One 1929 advertisement proclaimed, “Light a Lucky and you’ll never miss a sweet that makes you fat.
  • Studies of twins reveal that fat cells in a heavier twin underwent metabolic changes that made it harder for them to burn fat. Even gaining as little as 11 pounds slows a person’s metabolism—which, it turn, leads to even more weight gain.
  • The “Byron Diet” is named after Victorian poet Lord Byron who would eat bizarre foods such as potatoes drenched in vinegar in an effort to look fashionably thin and pale.
  • Stress can make it difficult to lose weight. Stress can trigger cravings for carb-rich snack foods which tend to calm stress hormones. Stress hormones can also increase fat storage. In addition to physical exercise, relaxation techniques can help control weight.
  • Sleep deprivation can make it harder to lose weight. Inadequate sleep upsets a person’s hormone balance, which decreases leptin (a hormone that makes a person feel full) and increases ghrelin (which triggers hunger). Scientists argue that getting enough sleep is the cheapest and easiest obesity medicine.
  • Studies found those who suffered from severe ear infections had a more difficult time losing weight. Scientists believe that such infections may damage a taste nerve that runs through the middle ear. The damaged nerve means that a person would have a higher threshold for sensing sweetness and fattiness.
  • Amid the many hundreds of diet books are really only four basic rules for weight loss: 1) eat carbs in the form of whole grains or fiber, 2) avoid trans and saturated fats, 3) eat lean protein, and 4) eat lots of fruits and vegetables.
  • While weight loss pills may help a person lose weight temporarily, they can cause other negative side effects, such as severe mood swings and depression.
  • Researchers note that having sex within a committed, healthy relationship can aid in weight loss, though it shouldn’t replace one’s daily workout. On average, sex burns 150–250 calories per half hour and helps decrease stress.
  • According to one study, using red plates helps people eat less. Researchers believe that the color red is associated with stopping and caution, which subconsciously encourages people to be more aware of what they are eating and how often.
  • According to the journal Obesity, paying for meals with cash increases the likelihood someone will buy more healthful food.
  • A recent study found that those who took more breaks from sitting throughout the day had slimmer waists, lower BMI, and healthier blood fat and blood sugar levels than those who sat the most. In short, the longer a person sits, the more likely they are to die an early death.
  • People who are leaner move an average of 150 minutes more per day than overweight people. Simply getting off of a chair and moving helps turn on fat burning enzymes and increase blood flow.
  • Energy levels typically skyrocket after losing unwanted weight because carrying less weight means using less energy to simply get through day. Additionally, weight loss improves oxygen efficiency, which leads to less huffing and puffing.
  • Sitting at desk burns 83 calories per hour. Standing at desk burns 115 calories per hour. Riding an elevator burns 128 calories an hour. Taking the stairs burns 509.
  • Watching TV burns 64 calories an hour. Making out burns 96.
  • Night owls may be more likely to pack on the pounds than early birds. Studies find that people who go to bed late eat more food, have worse diets, and are more likely to have a higher body mass index BMI than those who go to bed earlier.
  • Studies show that those who travel most for work have a harder time losing weight and tend to have a greater risk of obesity.
  • Muscle uses more calories to maintain itself than any other body tissue. For every pound of muscle someone puts on, they automatically burn an extra 22 to 36 more calories a day.
  • An Ohio State University study found that women who reported stress in the previous 24 hours burned 104 calories fewer than non-stressed women after a high-fat meal.
  • Female breasts are almost made up entirely of fat. This is why breasts tend to reduce in size before other parts of the body with weight loss.
  • One pound of fat equals 3,500 calories.
  • In the “Tapeworm Diet” some people swallow tapeworms to help them lose weight. Unfortunately, side effects include bloating, nausea, and diarrhea-as well as the possibility that the tape worm might lay eggs in other tissues, such as the nervous system, which could cause seizures, dementia, and meningitis.
  • Researchers note that Americans eat for lots of reason, but usually not because of hunger. They eat because of family, friends, packages, plates, names, numbers, labels, lights, colors, candles, shapes, smells, and containers and a myriad of other “food cues.”
  • Someone who has soda readily available and in sight at home weighs on average 25 pounds more than someone who doesn’t.
  • Researchers noted that keeping serving dishes off the table reduced the amount of food men ate by 29%.
  • In a study, heavy people sat, on average, 16 feet closer to buffet food than skinny people did. Additionally, the skinnier people who ate at the buffet looked over all the food, made a plan, and then got their food. The heavier people just dove right in with no perusing or planning. Heavier people at the buffest also chewed 12 times per mouthful; skinnier people chewed an average of 15 times.
  • People who have candy on or in their desk reported weighing 15.4 more pounds than those who didn’t.
  • Google did an experiment with M&Ms at their headquarters. When they put the candy in containers instead of out in the open, people ate 3 million fewer pieces within one month’s time.
  • Posting photos of low-calorie foods on the fridge may help in weight loss. Pictures act as subtle reminder of a person’s weight loss goals. Researchers also suggest making the background on a smartphone a low-cal food.
  • Shopping while hungry makes people not only buy more food, it also makes them buy more junk food
  • Study participants who scored in the top 10% on impulsivity weighed an average of 22 pounds more than those in the bottom 10%.
  • Regularly smelling peppermint may help decrease hunger and, consequently, caloric intake. Researchers believe the strong scent is distracting and helps keeps a person’s mind off of their appetite.
  • On average, if someone eats with one other person, they will eat about 35% more than if eating alone. If someone eats with a group of seven or more, they’ll eat nearly twice as much, or 96% more than if they were eating alone.
  • Studies show that if someone eats with an overweight friend, or if their waitress is overweight, they’ll eat more. However, a woman eating with a man will typically eat less.
  • Greek physician and philosopher Galen explained 2,000 years ago that “bad humors” were the cause of obesity. He prescribed massages, baths, and “slimming foods” such as greens, garlic, and wild game as a way to lose weight.
  • Weight loss drugs first entered mainstream markets during the 1920s. Physicians would prescribe thyroid medication to healthy people to help them lose weight.

Filamentous Biofilm

Investigating Filamentous Growth and Biofilm/Mat Formation in Budding Yeast – Content Source NCBI/NIH

In response to nutrient limitation, budding yeast can undergo filamentous growth by differentiating into elongated chains of interconnected cells. Filamentous growth is regulated by signal transduction pathways that oversee the reorganization of cell polarity, changes to the cell cycle, and an increase in cell adhesion that occur in response to nutrient limitation. Each of these changes can be easily measured. Yeast can also grow colonially atop surfaces in a biofilm or mat of connected cells. Filamentous growth and biofilm/mat formation require cooperation among individuals; therefore, studying these responses can shed light on the origin and genetic basis of multicellular behaviors. The assays introduced here can be used to study analogous behaviors in fungal pathogens, which require filamentous growth and biofilm/mat formation for virulence.

Microbial species use diverse strategies to compete for nutrients. Being nonmotile, fungal microorganisms have developed a unique behavior, called filamentous growth, in which cells change their shape and band together in chains or filaments to scavenge for nutrients. Many fungal species can also grow in interconnected mats of cells called biofilms. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows these behaviors, providing a genetically tractable system to study the pathways that control nutrient-dependent foraging. Studies on filamentous growth have provided insights into how eukaryotic cells differentiate and cooperate with each other, and how genetic pathways control fungal pathogenesis. Fungal pathogens require filamentous growth and biofilm formation for virulence.



The current picture of filamentous growth is a complex one, in which multiple pathways and hundreds of targets coordinate a highly integrated response that we are only beginning to understand. Future studies of filamentous growth will aid in the understanding of the genetic basis of cell differentiation, development, and the regulation of multicellularity in eukaryotes. The assays described in the associated protocols are attractive in terms of their simplicity and potential use as teaching tools. Their versatility furthermore allows analysis of filamentous growth and biofilm formation in diverse fungal species including pathogens.

Zygomycetes in Human Disease

Content Source-NCBI

The Zygomycetes represent relatively uncommon isolates in the clinical laboratory, reflecting either environmental contaminants or, less commonly, a clinical disease called zygomycosis. There are two orders of Zygomycetes containing organisms that cause human disease, the Mucorales and the Entomophthorales. The majority of human illness is caused by the Mucorales.

Organisms of the class Zygomycetes were first noted to cause disease in humans in publications from the 1800’s.

PDF Doc – 66 pages. – Zygomycetes-in-Human-Disease

Horace Fletcher-The Great Masticator

Content Source ~ Wikipedia

Horace Fletcher (1849–1919) was an American health food enthusiast of the Victorian era who earned the nickname “The Great Masticator”, by arguing that food should be chewed about 100 times per minute before being swallowed: “Nature will castigate those who don’t masticate”. He made elaborate justifications for his claim.

  1. Eat only when you have a good appetite.
  2. Chew the food like pulp and drink that pulp. Do not swallow food.
  3. Drink all the liquids and liquid food sip by sip. Do not drink in gulps.

Fletcher and his followers recited and followed his instructions religiously, even claiming that liquids, too, had to be chewed in order to be properly mixed with saliva. Fletcher argued that his mastication method will increase the amount of strength a person could have while actually decreasing the amount of food that he consumed. Fletcher promised that “Fletcherizing”, as it became known, would turn “a pitiable glutton into an intelligent epicurean.”

EPICURUS ~ Wikipedia ~ For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by ataraxia—peace and freedom from fear—and aponia—the absence of pain—and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends. He taught that the root of all human neurosis was death denial, and the tendency for human beings to assume that death will be horrific and painful, which he claimed causes unnecessary anxiety, selfish self-protective behaviors, and hypocrisy. According to Epicurus, death is the end of both the body and the soul and therefore should not be feared. He also taught that the gods neither reward nor punish humans; that the universe is infinite and eternal; and that occurrences in the natural world are ultimately the result of atoms moving and interacting in empty space.

Iodine-Steroidogenesis, Fat Burning and Muscle Building

~Content Source

Iodine is used by the thyroid to produce thyroid hormones, and is actually used by other tissue as well. Only 80% of iodine is found in the thyroid, whereas the other 20% are found in other tissue such as salivary glands, gastric mucosa, the choroid plexus (brain), ciliary body of the eye, lacrimal gland, thymus, skin, placenta, prostate, and pancreas…

Oceans are the main source, where soil contains very little. Foods that grow close to the sea contains more iodine, due to the sea winds that bring iodine to he soil. Seaweeds such as wakame, nori or mekabu, contains significant amounts of iodine.

The thyroid manufactures thyroid hormones in the gland from one molecule of the amino acid tyrosine and iodine—four iodine atoms per tyrosine molecule in the case of thyroxine (T4), and three iodine atoms in the case of triiodothyronine (T3).

99% of all thyroid hormones are bound to proteins, while only 1% is free in serum. 80% of T3 is deiodinated from T4, to be used by tissue. T4 crosses the blood brain barrier better than T3, so he brain requires more T4 as it can covert it to T3. A decrease in T4 result in an increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) which signals the thyroid to produce more thyroid hormones. TSH also increases the conversion of T4 to T3.

Major effects of thyroid hormones:

  • Regulates basal metabolic rate
  • Regulates nutrient metabolism (digestion, absorption, transport, insulin sensitivity etc…)
  • Regulates on ion transport/muscle contraction
  • Development, growth (height and muscle size), and steroidogenesis

Being more active and healthy, with a fast metabolism and high testosterone production demands more thyroid hormones, spesifically T3.

Many other nutrients are important for optimal thyroid function as well as the conversion of T4 to T3. Few of these nutrients include vitamin A, selenium, vitamin D, zinc, magnesium, vitamin B6, and more.

For e.g. a deficiency is zinc, selenium and iodine decreases TSH, T4 and T3.

About 120mcg of iodine is sufficient for thyroid hormone production. But it’s just the very bare minimum requirement, same as with the minimum vitamin D requirement to prevent rickets.

As toxins, halogens, inflammation, infection increase, so does the need for iodine and it’s cofactors.

Same goes for increased physical activity, steroidogenesis, metabolism all require more thyroid hormone to function more effectively.

Once the thyroid is saturated with iodine (which requires much more than just the RDA of 150mcg to saturate), it further detoxes, replaces and protects the thyroid from radioactive elements as well as toxic halogens which can interfere with thyroid hormone production, such as chlorine, fluoride, bromine and heavy metals such as mercury, lead, aluminium, copper etc.

Powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-septic and anti-cancer

Iodine is one of the best free radical scavengers and immune system supporters. It neutralizes and breaks down hydrogen peroxide to form water, preventing he formation of a hydroxyl radical. I2 exerts a 10- or 50-fold greater antioxidant action than ascorbic acid or KI (potassium iodide), respectively.

Iodine also suppresses the levels of pro-inflammatory messengers such as nitric oxide, prostaglandin-E2 (which increases estrogen as well), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β), making iodine a very effective anti-inflammatory mineral.

Iodine has shown to exert powerful antiproliferative action (prevent the spread of cancerous and tumor) via PPARγ receptor activation. Iodine also protects healthy cells against apoptosis (cell death) and induce apoptosis on cancerous cells.

Iodine has also been used to treat asthma, parasites, syphilis, cancer, Graves’ disease, periodontal disease, and arteriosclerosis.

As iodine has been found in the mucous of the stomach, it protects against incoming toxins and also against abnormal growth of bacteria in the stomach, keeping the gut sterile, clean, healthy and protected. Iodine could thus also be a potent agent against the progression of leaky gut.

Seaweeds and other iodine rich plants have been used 4 century BC by Theophrastus, Aristotle’s pupil, to treat wounds, such as from sunburns, and its probably also been used before that by others for wounds/inflections.

Adaptogen and anti-cortisol

Animal studies have proven that iodine normalizes elevated adrenal corticosteroid hormone secretion related to stress, so it acts as an adaptogen.


Iodine reverses the effects of hypothyroidism on the testicles. Thyroid hormones increase testosterone synthesis, and inadequate T3 will lead to low testosterone and testosterone receptor sensitivity.

Iodine will protect the testes and testosterone from free radicals and oxidative stress, however, when there too way too much iodine in the testes, without enough cofactors, it can actually increase reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and lower testosterone via down regulation of varies enzymes.

Iodine also binds/interacts with nucleus/steroid receptors and helps to increase receptor sensitivity of T and DHT.

Iodine administration is also able to regenerate damaged Leydig cells (cells in testes where testosterone is made).

Not only does iodine protect the thyroid against toxins such as bromine, flouride, chlorine, etc, but also all other tissue including testes. If toxins and heavy metals are present in testes, proper testosterone synthesis can not occur.


Iodine is potentially anti-estrogenic. As seen in this study, treatment with iodine and iodide increases the mRNA levels (increase the expression and activity) of Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and 1B1 (CYP1B1). These two enzymes are phase I estrogen metabolizing enzymes that oxidizes 17β-estradiol (which is carcinogenic) to 2-hydoxyestradiol (2-OH-E2) and 4-hydoxyestradiol (4-OH-E2), respectively. Higher activity of these enzymes lead to greater catabolism of estrogen and urinary excretion of the metabolites.

Iodine also decreases the levels of the estrogen responsive genes TFF1 and WISP2.

Iodine increases peroxidase activity, which is inversely related to estrogen receptor alpha (ER) concentration, thus restricting estrogen’s action. 2-5mg/day of iodine (I2) diminished translocation of the estrogen receptor alpha.

Iodine treatment increases the catabolism of estrogen and decreases estrogen receptors and estrogen responsiveness to receptors.

Furthermore, iodine saturates as well as inhibit the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, preventing its endocrine and metabolism disrupting actions to a great degree.

Extras and supplements

I advise to stay away from iodated salt and get your iodine from food sources and from supplements containing only organic iodine, not combined with inorganic iodine.

Weston Price reported that the intake of iodine was 131-175 mcg for the Inuit (about the level of the DRI) and 25-34 mcg for Canadian Indians (considered very low, although they did not exhibit thyroid problems). Traditional food of Japanese contains significant amounts of dietary iodine, and they possibly consume at least 7000 mcg of iodine daily from kombu alone with no suppressive effect on the thyroid.

Liquid iodine is clean iodine with a mix of organic and inorganic iodine. Kelp/seaweeds contains just organic iodine as well as many other rare essential trace minerals that your body also needs. I would be much harder, if not impossible, to overdose on iodine from kelp. I don’t think it’s necessary to take more than 1mg daily, unless you need to flush out other metals that’s interfering with your thyroid or when you want to lower excessive estrogen. Under those circumstance you could increase your dosage until you see the symptoms diminish and you have found your sweet spot.

Neem Kills Cancer

Selective Induction of Apoptosis by Azadarichta indica(Neem) Leaf Extract by Targeting Oxidative Vulnerabilities in Human Cancer Cells. ~ NIH-PubMed

Full Article PDF ~ 25221-66203-1-PB


Natural products have been a great source of medications used in conventional medicines for the treatment of various diseases; more importantly, they have played a significant role in the development of anti-cancer drugs for a number of decades. The benefits to employing whole extracts of natural health products, rather than a single ingredient, for cancer treatment remains unexplored. Our research group has previously demonstrated the potential anti-cancer benefits of several natural health products (NHPs), prompting further studies into other NHPs, such as Neem (Azadarichta indica), a tree native to India and has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for over 4000 years. The objective of this study is to determine the possible anti-cancer potential of aqueous and ethanolic Neem leaf extracts (NLEs) and to identify the specific mode(s) of action.


Cells were treated with NLE and cell viability was then assessed using a water-soluble tetrazolium salt. Cell death was confirmed using the fluorescent dye propidium iodide and apoptosis was identified using the Annexin-V binding assay. Mitochondrial membrane permeabilization was visualized using JC-1 staining and the production of whole cell and mitochondrial ROS was measured with 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) and Amplex Red, respectively. In vivo efficacy of aqueous NLE was assessed in human tumour xenografts in CD-1 nu/nu immunocompromised mice.


Results indicate that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Neem leaf were effective in inducing apoptosis in leukemia and colon cancer cells, following destabilization of the mitochondrial membrane. Furthermore, an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in cancer cells treated with NLEs, indicating that oxidative stress may play a role in the mechanism of cell death. Additionally, in vivo results showed that aqueous NLE (delivered orally) was well tolerated and inhibited tumour growth of humanxenografts in mice.


These findings suggest the potential of NLEs as safer and effective alternatives to conventional chemotherapy. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see “For Readers”) may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue’s contents page.