Wikipedia – Tafoni – Fossilized mycelium
Priceless – craterexplorer.ca – Craterbase
Clipperton Island – Atoll – Think Atlantis and Hurricane Katrina
Wikipedia –Müggelsee – Lake
The first uses of the word component “Müggel” are, according to Gerhard Schlimpert in the “Codex diplomaticus Brandenburgensis”, in 1394 as “den Tyns in der Miggel” and in 1487 as “von der Miggelseh”. The etymology remains unclear. The traditional derivative from Common Slavonic mogyla = “grave, grave hill, earth hill” is rejected by Schlimpert as not durable. A pre-Slavonic, Germanic origin from a Proto-Indo-European root is more probable: migh-, mighla = “fog, cloud“: compare Dutch miggelen = “drizzle” belongs. Analyses say that the word component “heim” in the name was brought around 1750 by settlers from the Palatinate from their homeland Odernheim, according to Schlimpert.
Tubers produce Glycoalkaloid in small amounts. If green sections (sprouts and skins) of the plant are exposed to light the tuber can produce a high enough concentration of glycoalkaloids to affect human health.
|FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
July 13, 2004
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The Food and Drug Administration today announced that Judge William G. Bassler of the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey, has found that three products sold by Lane Labs-USA, Inc. and its president Andrew J. Lane (the defendants) as dietary supplements and a cosmetic – Benefin, MGN-3 and SkinAnswer – are, in fact, unapproved new drugs under federal law because they were being marketed as treatments for cancer, HIV, and skin cancer without FDA approval. In addition, Judge Bassler permanently enjoined the defendants from distributing BeneFin, MGN-3, and SkinAnswer unless the products are first either approved for marketing by FDA or distributed pursuant to an Investigational New Drug (IND) application for purposes of conducting a clinical trial. Judge Bassler also ordered the defendants to pay restitution to all purchasers of BeneFin, MGN-3, and SkinAnswer since September 22, 1999.
“Today’s action by Judge Bassler sends a strong signal that the promotion and sale of unapproved drug products, especially for the treatment of cancer and other serious diseases, will not be tolerated,” said Dr. Lester M. Crawford, Acting Commissioner of Food and Drugs.
“Moreover, the court’s decision ordering the defendants in this case to refund money to all purchasers of the unlawfully marketed products is particularly significant, because it puts promoters of such illegal products on notice that they cannot profit from this type of exploitation,” added Dr. Crawford.
FDA issued a warning letter to the defendants in September, 1997. Nevertheless, the defendants continued promoting BeneFin, MGN-3, and SkinAnswer as treatments for cancer and other diseases through such means as mailings, Internet web sites, and employee statements. BeneFin, produced from shark cartilage, was promoted as a treatment for cancer. SkinAnswer, a glycoalkaloid skin cream, was marketed as a treatment for skin cancer. MGN-3, a rice-bran extract, was promoted as a treatment for cancer and HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
The government’s request for a permanent injunction was based on the defendants’ demonstrated unwillingness to comply with the law.
Staphylococcus aureus (also known as golden staph) is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin. It is often positive for catalase and nitrate reduction and is a facultative anaerobe that can grow without the need for oxygen.
Although S. aureus is not always pathogenic (and can commonly be found existing as a commensal), it is a common cause of skin infections including abscesses, respiratory infections such as sinusitis, and food poisoning. Pathogenic strains often promote infections by producing virulence factors such as potent protein toxins, and the expression of a cell-surface protein that binds and inactivates antibodies. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus(MRSA) is a worldwide problem in clinical medicine. Despite much research and development there is no approved vaccine for S. aureus.
Skin pH: From Basic Science to Basic Skin Care – PDF Doc
The “acid mantle” is a topic not only of historical interest, but also of clinical significance and has recently been linked to vital stratum corneum function. Despite compelling basic science evidence placing skin pH as a key factor in barrier homeostasis, stratum corneum integrity, and antimicrobial defense, application of the acid mantle concept in clinical care is lacking. We review recent basic science investigations into skin pH, discuss skin disorders characterized by aberrant pH, and finally discuss practical application for preservation of the acid mantle. Recognizing factors that alter skin pH and selecting products that preserve the acid mantle is of prime importance in treating dermatologic patients. Key words: skin pH; acid mantle; stratum corneum; barrier homeostasis; serine protease; atopic dermatitis; acne; intertrigo; diaper dermatitis; syndets.
Skin pH is normally acidic, ranging in pH values of 4–6, while the body’s internal environment maintains a near-neutral pH (7–9). This creates a steep pH gradient of 2–3 units between the SC and underlying epidermis and dermis. The physiologic role of an acidic skin surface, historically was thought to be a defense mechanism against invading organisms. More recently, it has been demonstrated that several key enzymes involved in the synthesis and maintenance of a competent skin barrier are largely impacted by pH. Hence, a broader view of the importance of pH in relation to function and integrity of the skin is emerging.
Following the breadcrumbs…Skin Biome:
1. Prenylation – Adhesion of protein molecules cancer treatment.
2. Palmitoylation – Cancers and disorders of the nervous system.
3. Myristoylation -HIV-1 utilizes myristoylation on the Matrix protein to target the viral proteins and viral genome to the membrane for budding and viral maturation. NMT
4. Delta catenin – Cell to cell adhesion.
The skin is the human body’s largest organ, colonized by a diverse milieu of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to their host. Colonization is driven by the ecology of the skin surface, which is highly variable depending on topographical location, endogenous host factors and exogenous environmental factors. The cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses can modulate the skin microbiota, but the microbiota also functions in educating the immune system. The development of molecular methods to identify microorganisms has led to an emerging view of the resident skin bacteria as highly diverse and variable. An enhanced understanding of the skin microbiome is necessary to gain insight into microbial involvement in human skin disorders and to enable novel promicrobial and antimicrobial therapeutic approaches for their treatment.